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Evaluación y diseño de un paisaje fragmentado para la  conservación de biodiversidad

Ana Paula Corrêa do Carmo
Bryan Finegan
Celia Harvey


El diseño del paisaje fragmentado debe basarse en el conocimiento y análisis del patrón del paisaje.

RESUMEN

Los paisajes son compuestos por un mosaico de parches de tipos de ecosistemas naturales o modificados por la acción humana, cuyo arreglo espacial puede maximizar la conservación de la biodiversidad sin excluir la actividad agrícola productiva del paisaje. El presente trabajo caracterizó el patrón del paisaje del Área Demostrativa Miraflor-Moropotente, un área protegida fragmentada de 278,38 km2 en la región Norcentral de Nicaragua; se basó en un mosaico de 15 tipos de parches (6 tipos de bosque, 2 tipos de vegetación secundaria, 4 tipos de sistemas agroforestales y 3 tipos de áreas sin árboles), construído en el SIG ArcView a partir de la interpretación de fotografías aéreas escala 1:20 000. Se caracterizaron el área y número de parches para cada ecosistema, su forma, el área de hábitat interior en fragmentos de bosque, la distancia de los parches a los fragmentos de bosque y la continuidad espacial de los fragmentos. Luego fueron propuestos, a partir de criterios objetivos, tres diseños alternativos para la recuperación del paisaje . Dos diseños fueron construídos en base a las características espaciales de los parches. Un diseño fue construído a partir de un análisis gap de los tipos de ambientes del paisaje, considerando clases de elevación, tipos de paisaje y proximidad a los ríos. Por intersección de los tres diseños, fueron definidos 1042 ha + 845 ha de áreas prioritarias cuya restauración de cobertura boscosa puede promover la conservación de hábitat natural en una diversidad de ecosistemas, aumentar la superficie de área de hábitat interior en fragmentos de bosque grandes y asegurar la sostenibilidad del sistema por medio de la protección de los recursos hídricos.

Palabras clave: análisis gap, áreas protegidas, ecología de paisajes, fragmentación, restauración de biodiversidad, SIG.

ABSTRACT

Evaluation and design of a fragmented landscape for the conservation of biodiversity. Landscapes are composed by a mosaic of patches of natural or human modified ecossistem types. The spatial arrangement of patches in the landscape mosaic can maximize biodiversity conservation without excluding the agricultural activity of the landscape. This study characterized landscape pattern of the Miraflor-Moropotente Demostration Area, a fragmented protected area with 278.38 km2 in the northcentral region of Nicaragua. The landscape characterization was based on a mosaic of 16 types of patches (6 forest types, 2 types of secondary vegetation, 4 types of agroforestry systems and 3 types of areas without trees), built in ArcView GIS from the photointerpretation of pictures scale 1:20 000. Patch number and area were characterized for each ecosystem type, as well as the shape of the patches, the area of core hábitat in forest fragments, the distance between patches and forest fragments and the spatial continuity of fragments. Three alternative designs for the recovery of the landscape were then proposed, on the basis of objective criteria. Two designs were built based on the spatial characteristics of the patches. One design was built based on a gap analysis of types of environment in the landscape, considering elevation classes, landscape types and proximity to rivers. By the intersection of these three designs, 1042 ha + 845 ha of priority areas were defined whose restoration of forest cover can promote the conservation of natural hábitat in a diversity of ecosystems, the increase in core habitat area in big forest fragments and to assure the sustainability of the system by means of the protection of water resources.

Keywords: gap analysis, protected areas, landscape ecology, fragmentation, biodiversity restoration, GIS.


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Ana Paula Corrêa do Carmo
Master en Manejo y Conservación de Bosques Tropicales y Biodiversidad
Tel:(055) 016-9961-7523
a_n_a_p@hotmail.com
Bryan Finegan
CATIE 7170 Turrialba, Costa Rica
bfinegan@catie.ac.cr
Celia Harvey
CATIE 7170 Turrialba, Costa Rica
charvey@catie.ac.cr



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